Terpenes

Terpenes are plant chemicals. They are aromatic hydrocarbons found in essential oils produced by many plants and are an important part of the biochemistry of cannabis plants. Unlike the phytocannabinoids, they are not unique to cannabis. Terpenes are emerging as a major factor responsible for not only the flavours and smells of plants, but also a large amount of the effects for which we use cannabis medicinally.

Limonene

Boiling Point: 176°C (349°F)

Found in high concentrations in the rinds of citrus fruits. Limonene is commonly used in perfumes, household cleaners, and medicines, and boasts a very low toxicity in humans.

Some medical benefits may include:

Anti-anxiety

Anti-depressant  

Immune stimulant

Appetite suppressant

May promote weight loss

Relieves GI distress

Antifungal and Antibacterial

Pinene

Boiling Point: 155°C (311°F)

Found in high concentrations in cannabis, rosemary and… you guessed it, pine trees. Pinene is what gives the pine tree its characteristic smell.

Some medical benefits may include:

Pain reliever

Anti-inflammatory

Bronchodilator

Memory retention

Linalool

Boiling Point: 198°C (388.4°F)

While commonly found in cannabis, linalool is well known for giving lavender that very distinct smell. Lavender, and therefore linalool, has been used for thousands of years to treat multiple ailments.

Some medical benefits may include: 

Anti-anxiety

Sleep aid

Relaxant

Humulene

Boiling Point: 198°C (388°F)

Common hops, or Humulus Lupulus, is where this terpene derives its name due to high concentrations in these plants. Humulene often naturally occurs alongside caryophyllene. Pine trees, orange orchards and tobacco fields are just a few examples of humulene emitters into the environment.

Some medical benefits may include:

Anti-inflammatory

Potential anti-cancer properties

Analgesic

Appetite suppressant

Caryophyllene

Boiling Point: 160°C (320°F)

Most commonly found in hops, cloves and basil, caryophyllene is the primary terpene that contributes to the spiciness found in these foods as well as in cannabis.

Some medical benefits may include:

Dietary cannabinoid

Anti-inflammatory

Antioxidant

Local anesthetic

Potential Anti-cancer properties

Anti-anxiety properties

Myrcene

Boiling Point: 168°C (334°F)

Myrcene derives its name from Myrcia sphaerocarpa, a brazilian shrub that boasts high concentration of this terpene. It also occurs in moderately high concentrations in hops, mangoes.

Some medical benefits may include:

Antibiotic and metabolic potential

Pain relief

Anti-inflammation

Antispasmodic

Terpinolene

Boiling Point: 184°C (363°F)

Terpinolene occurs in higher concentrations in cumin and lilacs, as well as in tea tree and most apple varieties.

Some medical benefits may include:

Potential anti-cancer agent

Antifungal

Antibacterial

Sedative

Trans-Nerolidol

Boiling Point: 122°C (252°F)

Trans-Nerolidol is commonly found in ginger and jasmine. It is commonly used as a flavouring agent due to the notes of fir and pine it exhibits. When isolated, it has a distinct woody scent reminiscent of fresh bark. Nerolidol shows promise of improving the transdermal delivery of other terpenes and cannabinoids. 

Some medical benefits may include:

Antifungal

Antimicrobial

Antioxidant

Potential anti-cancer properties

Sedative

Bisabolol

Boiling Point: 153°C (307°F)

Commonly found in chamomile, bisabolol is a potent anti-inflammatory. It is a source of Panthenol, a form of vitamin B, that helps the skin hold onto moisture making it less likely to dry out. Bisabolol has been shown to speed up the healing of sunburn and skin rashes. It actually enhances skin’s ability to absorb other active ingredients, making it a go-to terpene for the skincare industry.

Some medical benefits may include:

Anti-inflammatory

Anti-irritant

Antioxidant

Anti-microbial

Analgesic

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